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Healing Attachment Trauma: Effective Therapy for Adults


Attachment trauma is a profound issue that originates from early relational experiences with primary caregivers. These experiences can deeply impact one's emotional and psychological development, often leading to difficulties in forming and maintaining healthy relationships in adulthood. This article explores the nature of attachment trauma, its manifestations in adult relationships, and therapeutic approaches that can help in healing and re-regulating the nervous system for healthier connections.


What is Attachment Trauma?


Attachment trauma occurs when a child’s need for safety, security, and emotional attunement is not met by their caregivers. This can happen due to various reasons, including neglect, abuse, inconsistent caregiving, or the caregiver’s own unresolved trauma. The attachment system, which is essential for survival and emotional regulation, gets disrupted, leading to a host of issues later in life.


Attachment theory, developed by John Bowlby and later expanded by Mary Ainsworth, emphasizes the importance of a secure attachment bond between children and their caregivers. Secure attachment provides the foundation for healthy emotional and social development. When this bond is compromised, it can lead to insecure attachment styles, such as anxious, avoidant, or disorganized attachment, which manifest in adulthood as attachment trauma.


How Attachment Trauma Manifests in Adulthood


Attachment trauma often goes unrecognized until its effects become evident in adult relationships. Adults with attachment trauma may exhibit several patterns and behaviors that reflect their early attachment experiences. Individuals with attachment trauma often have a heightened fear of being abandoned or rejected. This fear can lead to clinginess, dependency, or, conversely, pushing others away to avoid potential hurt. 


Trust issues are common among those with attachment trauma. These individuals may find it hard to rely on others, fearing betrayal or disappointment. Forming close, intimate relationships can be challenging. Adults with attachment trauma might struggle with vulnerability, leading to emotional distance or an inability to fully engage in relationships. 

Early attachment trauma can impair an individual's ability to regulate emotions. This may result in intense emotional reactions, mood swings, or difficulty managing stress. Adults with attachment trauma often find themselves in repetitive cycles of unhealthy relationships, mirroring the dynamics they experienced with their caregivers. Negative experiences in early life can contribute to low self-esteem and deeply ingrained negative beliefs about oneself, such as feeling unworthy of love or incapable of maintaining relationships.


Impact of Attachment Trauma on Adult Relationships


The impact of attachment trauma on adult relationships can be profound and multifaceted. Attachment trauma can lead to frequent conflicts and misunderstandings in relationships. The fear of abandonment or rejection may cause individuals to misinterpret their partner’s actions, leading to unnecessary arguments. To protect themselves from potential hurt, individuals with attachment trauma might emotionally withdraw from their partners, creating a sense of distance and disconnection. Some individuals may become overly dependent on their partners for emotional support, leading to codependent relationships where boundaries are blurred, and individuality is compromised. Opening up and being vulnerable can be terrifying for those with attachment trauma. This fear can prevent them from forming deep, meaningful connections, leaving them feeling isolated and alone. Physical and emotional intimacy can be challenging. Individuals might struggle with letting their guard down, fearing that closeness will lead to pain.


Healing from Attachment Trauma


Healing from attachment trauma involves a multifaceted approach that addresses both the psychological and physiological aspects of trauma. Working with a skilled therapist can help individuals understand their attachment patterns and develop healthier ways of relating to others. Therapies such as EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) and IFS (Internal Family Systems) are particularly effective in processing trauma. Polyvagal Theory, developed by Dr. Stephen Porges, provides a framework for understanding how our nervous system responds to trauma. It emphasizes the importance of creating safety and connection to help re-regulate the nervous system. Techniques such as deep breathing, mindfulness, and the Safe and Sound Protocol (SSP) can promote nervous system regulation. Somatic therapies focus on the body’s role in storing and processing trauma. Approaches such as Somatic Experiencing and sensorimotor psychotherapy help individuals become more aware of their bodily sensations and release stored trauma. Healing attachment trauma also involves building secure, supportive relationships. This can include developing a strong therapeutic alliance with a therapist, as well as fostering healthy connections with friends, family, and romantic partners. Practicing self-compassion and mindfulness can help individuals develop a kinder, more accepting relationship with themselves. This can counteract the negative self-beliefs that often accompany attachment trauma.



The Role of EMDR and IFS in Healing Attachment Trauma


EMDR and IFS are two therapeutic approaches that have shown great promise in healing attachment trauma. EMDR therapy involves using dual awareness stimulation to help process and integrate traumatic memories. This can help individuals reduce the emotional intensity of these memories and reprocess them in a way that promotes healing. EMDR is particularly effective for those with attachment trauma, as it can address the deep-seated emotional wounds that underlie attachment issues. Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy involves working with different parts of the self, including the wounded, exiled parts that hold trauma. By creating a safe space for these parts to be heard and healed, IFS helps individuals develop a more integrated and compassionate relationship with themselves.


Healing Attachment Trauma with Therapy


Sarah (not her real name), sought therapy for chronic relationship difficulties. Sarah had a history of attracting emotionally unavailable partners and felt a pervasive sense of unworthiness. Through therapy, Sarah discovered that her difficulties were rooted in attachment trauma from her early childhood. Her mother had been emotionally distant, and her father was often absent, leading to a deep fear of abandonment and a belief that she was unlovable.


A combination of EMDR and IFS helped her process her traumatic memories and develop a more compassionate relationship with herself. Through EMDR, Sarah was able to reprocess her early experiences and reduce the emotional charge associated with them. IFS helped her understand and heal the wounded parts of herself that had developed in response to her early attachment trauma.


As Sarah progressed in therapy, she began to develop healthier patterns in her relationships. She became more aware of her triggers and learned how to soothe her nervous system when she felt threatened. Over time, Sarah built a secure, loving relationship with a partner who valued and supported her.


The Importance of Re-Regulating the Nervous System


A key aspect of healing attachment trauma is re-regulating the nervous system. When the nervous system is dysregulated, individuals are more likely to respond to stress and relational challenges with heightened emotional reactions. Techniques that promote nervous system regulation can help individuals move from states of survival (fight, flight, freeze) to states of safety and connection.


Techniques for Nervous System Regulation


  1. Breathwork Breathwork is a powerful tool for regulating the nervous system. Deep, slow breathing activates the parasympathetic nervous system, promoting relaxation and reducing stress. Techniques such as diaphragmatic breathing or box breathing (inhaling for four counts, holding for four counts, exhaling for four counts, and holding again for four counts) can help calm the mind and body. Regular practice of breathwork can improve overall emotional regulation and reduce anxiety.

  2. Mindfulness and Meditation Mindfulness practices involve paying attention to the present moment without judgment. Meditation, a specific form of mindfulness, encourages focusing the mind on a particular object, thought, or activity to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state. These practices can help individuals become more aware of their thoughts and feelings, reducing the tendency to react impulsively. Mindfulness and meditation have been shown to decrease stress, enhance self-awareness, and promote emotional stability.

  3. Safe and Sound Protocol (SSP) The Safe and Sound Protocol (SSP), developed by Dr. Stephen Porges, is an auditory intervention designed to improve social engagement and emotional regulation. SSP uses specially filtered music to stimulate the vagus nerve, enhancing the listener's ability to feel safe and connected. This protocol can be particularly beneficial for individuals with trauma, as it helps create a sense of safety in the body and mind, facilitating deeper therapeutic work and improving social interactions.

  4. Physical Activity Regular physical activity is essential for maintaining a regulated nervous system. Exercise releases endorphins, which are natural mood enhancers, and helps reduce stress hormones like cortisol. Activities such as walking, running, yoga, or dancing can help discharge built-up tension and promote a sense of well-being. Consistent physical activity can also improve sleep, boost self-esteem, and increase resilience to stress.

  5. Therapeutic Touch Therapeutic touch involves gentle, nurturing physical contact, which can help soothe the nervous system and create a sense of safety and comfort. This can include activities such as massage therapy, holding hands, or even self-hugging. For individuals who have experienced trauma, therapeutic touch should always be approached with sensitivity and consent, as it can sometimes trigger discomfort or memories of past abuse. When done appropriately, therapeutic touch can significantly enhance emotional regulation and the feeling of being cared for and supported.


Attachment trauma therapy at Creating Space Therapy
Learning to regulate your nervous system to heal attachment trauma

Understanding and addressing attachment trauma is crucial for developing fulfilling and secure relationships in adulthood. By recognizing the patterns and behaviors associated with attachment trauma, individuals can begin the journey towards healing and re-regulation. Therapeutic approaches such as EMDR, IFS, Polyvagal Theory, and somatic therapies offer effective tools for processing trauma and promoting nervous system regulation. With the right support, individuals can heal from attachment trauma, develop healthier relationships, and create a more fulfilling and connected life.


We’ve created space for you.


Healing from attachment trauma is a transformative journey that opens the door to healthier, more fulfilling relationships. If you recognize any of the patterns discussed and are ready to take the first step towards healing, we are here to support you. At Creating Space Therapy, we specialize in trauma therapy using EMDR, IFS, and the Safe and Sound Protocol to help you re-regulate your nervous system and build secure connections. Don’t let past trauma dictate your future. Click here to schedule a consultation and begin your path to emotional freedom and healthier relationships today. You deserve to feel safe, supported, and connected. Let’s start this journey together.

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